# The astrophysicist proposes a new theory of gravity without the law of conservation

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One-dimensional marginal distribution on individual parameters and 2D splines using SNe + BAO + CMB data points. credit: *European Physical Journal C* (2023). doi: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-023-12003-x

The theory of general relativity is based on the concept of curved spacetime. To describe how energy and momentum fields are distributed in space-time, as well as how they interact with the gravitational field, a special mathematical construction is used – the energy-momentum tensor. This is a kind of analogue of energy and momentum in ordinary mechanics.

In general relativity, the energy-momentum tensor is considered constant or conserved. As, for example, in ordinary mechanics, the law of conservation of energy is satisfied. However, this assumption is not always justified. For example, at sufficiently high energies, the so-called non-renormalization problem arises. Technically, this means the appearance of mathematical defects that cannot be eliminated.

A Rodin astrophysicist has constructed a new theory of gravity, in which the “law of conservation” of the energy-momentum tensor is not required. The study is published in *European Physical Journal C*.

“The problem of the irrenormalizability of Einstein’s gravity is well known. It has led to dozens of attempts to treat it as a low-energy theory. For example, in string theory, the classical Einstein equation is just the first term in an infinite series of gravitational corrections, so it is possible that At high energy and/or within the event horizon of black holes, the curvature of spacetime and gravity deviate from Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

“This can be interpreted in different ways. However, in any case, the law of conservation of energy-momentum can be violated at high energy levels,” Hamid Reza Fazlullah, a graduate student at the Educational and Scientific Institute of Gravity and Cosmology at RODN University, said.

Fadlallah has built a new model of gravity. It started with what is called the Gibbs-Duhem relationship. This is an equation that explains how the indicators of its components change in a thermodynamic system. After the conversions, we have an equation similar to Einstein’s classical equation in form, but with different factors and constants. The field equations are completed with two terms. The first describes temperature and entropy, and the second describes charge and reactivity.

The astrophysicist showed that the new gravity model is compatible with different environments and can be used in astrophysical and astrophysical research. For example, the author tested the new theory by calculating two stages of the universe’s evolution: inflation and accelerated expansion. The implications of the new theory are consistent with experimental observations.

“For example, we studied spherically symmetrical solutions and the evolution of the universe in the early and late epochs,” Fadlallah said. “The model did not present any contradictions regarding the Einstein gravity of the vacuum.”

**more information:**

H.R. Fadlallah, Theory of Unconserved Modified Gravity, *European Physical Journal C* (2023). doi: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-023-12003-x

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